By Edited by: F. Demus, Dietrich Demus, John W. Goodby, George W. Gray, Hans W. Spiess, Volkmar Vill
The guide of Liquid Crystals is a special compendium of data on all facets of liquid crystals. In over 2000 pages the guide presents precise info at the easy ideas of either low- and high-molecular weight fabrics, in addition to the synthesis, characterization, amendment, and purposes (such as in laptop screens or as structural fabrics) of every kind of liquid crystals. The 5 editors of the instruction manual are across the world well known specialists from either and academia and feature drawn jointly over 70 prime figures within the box as authors. The 4 volumes of the instruction manual are designed either for use jointly or as stand-alone reference resources. a few clients would require the full set, others might be top served with a range of the volumes. quantity 1 offers with the fundamental actual and chemical rules of liquid crystals, together with structure-property relationships, nomenclature, part habit, characterization tools, and normal synthesis and alertness suggestions. As such this quantity offers a great advent to the sector and a strong studying and instructing device for graduate scholars and above. quantity 2 concentrates on low-molecular weight fabrics, for instance these mostly utilized in exhibit know-how. a top quality survey of the literature is equipped besides complete information of molecular layout techniques, section characterization and keep an eye on, and functions improvement. This quantity is accordingly by means of some distance the main specific reference resource on those industrially vitally important fabrics, superb for execs within the box. quantity three concentrates on high-molecular weight, or polymeric, liquid crystals, a few of that are present in structural functions and others take place as traditional items of dwelling structures. a great literature survey is complemented via complete element of the synthesis, processing, research, and functions of all very important fabrics sessions. This quantity is the main entire reference resource on those fabrics, and is consequently perfect for pros within the box.
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Additional info for 4 Volume Set, Handbook of Liquid Crystals
G. macromolecules), for which neither charge density quality data (if not the crystals themselves) nor accurate enough theoretical densities are available. Electrostatic moments may then be used to improve the current force fields (Chaps. 11, and 14) or even to design new ones (Chap. 14) to be used in molecular dynamic simulations. Obtaining a good description of the electrostatic interaction between molecules is indeed one of the big problems in the development of current force fields . Comparison between results derived from experiment or theory is often biased by the known inadequacies of the multipole models adopted in the aspherical refinements (Sect.
As a consequence, the convergence of the Fourier sum and the relative importance of the different sampled regions of reciprocal space depend on the property being evaluated. High angle data, which are experimentally more difficult to obtain (Chaps. 3 and 19), take an increasing emphasis with increasing n and become particularly necessary for evaluating the electron density gradient and Laplacian. Note that such functions, along with the electron density, have a prominent role in the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules and that local concentrations of electronic charge upon (covalent) bonding yield to more diffuse distributions in reciprocal space, hence to significant contributions to the high angle data also from the valence electrons.
3 along with the take-home message that the fact that X-ray diffraction experiment provides information about <¡> and not simply about ¡stat should be more and more regarded as a true challenge for theory and experiment rather than a source of problems only. Efforts in this direction are currently targeted at analyzing and assessing the physical significance of the displacement parameters and at trying to start to move away from the independent atomic motion model towards a normalmode based model of collective vibrations.