By Jeroen van Craenenbroeck
Within the Nineteen Eighties generative grammar famous that practical fabric is ready to undertaking syntactic constitution in conformity with the X-bar-format. This perception quickly resulted in a substantial bring up within the stock of sensible projections. the fundamental inspiration at the back of this line of theorizing, which works by means of the identify of cartography, is that sentence constitution may be represented as a template of linearly ordered positions, each one with their very own syntactic and semantic import. in recent times, besides the fact that, a few difficulties were raised for this procedure. for instance, convinced combos of syntactic components can't be linearly ordered. In mild of such difficulties a few replacement bills were explored. a few of them suggest a brand new (often interface-related) set off for flow, whereas others search replacement technique of accounting for varied be aware order styles. those choices to cartography don't shape a homogeneous staff, nor has there to date been a discussion board the place those rules may be in comparison and faced with each other. This quantity fills that hole. It bargains a various and in-depth view at the place taken via a considerable variety of researchers within the box at the present time on what's most likely some of the most hotly debated and debatable matters in present-day generative grammar.
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It is well known that in the answer to a WH-question, the constituent that corresponds to the WH-operator is (usually) a focus. If it is interpreted contrastively, it qualifies as a contrastive focus. By this criterion, de bonen ‘the beans’ in (13a,b) is a contrastive focus. As suggested in the introduction, a contrastive topic is a constituent used to shift the topic of discourse. Such a shift takes place if the hearer answers a question about an entity different from the entity the original question was about.
The same observation holds for objects: (i) Q: Did John borrow the book from the library? end bookshop-at bought 17. This section is based on Neeleman and Titov (2008). 18. The most neutral word order dictated by the context in (36) requires sentence-final focus (see also Krylova and Khavronina 1988). However, it is possible for the focused constituent to scramble to a preverbal position in a context that does not force contrastive interpretation on the focused constituent in case this constituent is interpreted emphatically.
This implies that DoC marking does not only identify material on which a contrast is based, but also forces this material to be construed as belonging to the background or the comment, depending on the interpretation of the contrastive constituent. We should emphasize that (12a,b) are information structures, and not syntactic configurations. Given that the mapping between syntax and information structure need not be isomorphic, the ban on the embedding of a topic-comment structure in a background will not directly restrict syntactic structure.