Archipelag GU?ag: 1918-1956 by Aleksander So??enicyn

By Aleksander So??enicyn

Archipelag GUŁAG: 1918-1956, próba dochodzenia literackiego (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) – najważniejsze, trzytomowe dzieło Aleksandra Sołżenicyna, napisane w formie relacji historycznej, powstałe w latach 1958-1968. Na Zachodzie wydano je po raz pierwszy w 1973, zaś w Związku Radzieckim oficjalnie w 1989 (wcześniej funkcjonowało w obiegu podziemnym).

Jest ono wymownym świadectwem zbrodniczej działalności systemu komunistycznego w ZSRR. Autor, wykorzystując swoje doświadczenia, pokazał rozwój i rozprzestrzenianie się systemu więziennictwa radzieckiego, którego celem pierwotnym miała być "eliminacja wrogich klas społecznych". W konsekwencji powstał cały "archipelag" obozów koncentracyjnych i obozów morderczej pracy, nazwany od instytucji zarządzającej (Gławnoje Uprawlenije Łagierej) Archipelagiem GUŁag. Dzieło jest świadectwem stopniowego odzierania człowieka z jego godności i zmuszania do niewolniczej pracy pod bardzo wzniosłymi hasłami.

Na Zachodzie książka ta wywołała ogromne poruszenie, które doprowadziło do rozwiania iluzji na temat systemu komunistycznego oraz osłabienia wpływów komunistów zachodnioeuropejskich.

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Typically, remote historical series are constructed from crude data using prices and other value weights that, at best, approximate the underlying theoretical standard. exceptions, calculated in "late year" prices;2 They are, with few that is, in prices prevailing after the industrial transformation of the country has taken place. 5 Thus national income measures spanning even a long time period will not be as seriously confounded by index number problems as in the Soviet case. My interest, however, focuses upon national income comparisons with the Soviet era, and, as the Soviet period figures are markedly affected by the choice of weights effects of different weighting 26 used to aggregate outputs, the schemes upon tsarist national income RUSSIAN NATIONAL INCOME must be considered.

A. Dikhtiar, Vnutrenniai torgovlia v Nauka, 1963), pp. 433-79; dorevoliutsionnoi Rossi (Moscow: Nauka, 1960). 41 Strumilin, Statistika i ekonomika pp. 325-46, 433-44. 42 P. V. 01', Inostrannye kapitaly v narodnom khoziaistve dovoennoi Rossii, Materialy dlia izucheniia estestvennykh proizvoditel'nykh sil SSSR, no. 53 Leningrad: N. P. 1925. 43 V. I. Bovykin, "K voprosu o roli innostranogo kapitala v Rossii," Vestnik ftoskovskogo Universiteta, no. 1 (1964); I. F. Gindin, Russkie kommercheskie banki (Moscow: Gosfinizdat, 1948).

28 M. G. Mulhall, Dictionary of Statistics, various editions, 1884-99. 29 A. L. Vainshtein, "Ischisleniia i otsenka narodnogo dokhoda Rossii v do- revoliutsionnoe vremia," Akademiia nauk, vol. 7, Ocherki po istorii statistiki SSSR, (Moscow: Gosstatizdat, 1961), pp. 60-93. " 33 Goldsmith concludes (p. 443) that the growth of real per capita income in Russia from 1860 to 1913 "was close to the European average" but considerably below the rates of the United States, Germany and Japan. in error on this point.

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