By Yoram Amiel, Dr Frank A. Cowell (auth.), Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Wolfgang Eichhorn (eds.)
The literature on monetary difficulties hooked up with measuring and modelling of welfare and inequality has grown quickly in the final decade. for the reason that this literature is scattered all through a lot of journals on economics, fiscal idea, econometrics, and statisties, it's tricky to get an enough photograph of the current state-of-the-art. for this reason books should still seem every now and then, which provide a consultant cross-section of the newest result of examine on: the topic. This publication deals such fabric. It includes fifty four articles by means of eighty four authors from 4 of the 5 continents. each one paper has been reviewed by way of referees. As a conse quence, the contributions of this publication are revised types, or, in lots of circumstances, revised revisions of the unique papers. The publication is split into 4 components. half I: size of Inequality and Poverty This half includes 11 papers on thought and empirical functions of inequa lity and/or poverty measures. contributions take care of, between different issues, experimental findings on questions in regards to the reputation of distributional axioms. half II: Taxation and Redistribution Distributional or, particularly, redistributional elements play an enormous position partly II. the themes of the 14 papers incorporated during this half variety from tax progressivity and redistribution, allocative results of splitting lower than source of revenue taxation, and connections among source of revenue tax and cost-of-living indices to advantage items and welfarism in addition to to welfare points of tax reforms.
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Extra info for Models and Measurement of Welfare and Inequality
Teekens and Van Praag 1990). , Eurostat 1990). , Van Praag, Hagenaars and Van Weeren 1982; Hagenaars 1986; Kapteyn, Kooreman and Willemse 1988; Deleeck 1989). Activities in Canada to evaluate the extent and nature of poverty have focused mostly on data collection and analysis by Statistics Canada. For over 20 years, Statistics 35 Canada has been publishing a series of "Low Income Cut-Offs" (LICOs), as well as statistics on individuals and families whose incomes are below the LICOs. LICOs are based on the proportion of expenditures allocated to "necessities".
S. is clearly thicker than in the percentages are clearly higher in the Netherlands, among others as a consequence of the elaborate system of income transfers in the latter country. It should be added, however, that the presented percentages of poor according to the official minimum in the Netherlands are an underestimation of the real percentages, and that revisions in the system after 1983 have forced more households to the social minimum.
It may be that this equivalence scale, originally devised by the OECD as noted earlier, is more appropriate for countries where expenditures with relatively low scale economies, like food, compose a larger part of the total budget. s. results from this study are fairly close to the Wisconsin results of Colasanto, Kapteyn, and Van der Gaag (1984), but are clearly steeper than those of Danziger et al. (1988). Compared to the Dutch results of Kapteyn, Kooreman, and Willemse (1988), who also correct for nonresponse and neglected income components, our subjective thresholds rise less fast for households up to four members, but faster for larger households.